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FROM MANY IS ONE

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Archeology, which has studied the material evidence of human life and activity since ancient times, has found no signs or evidence that the first people, who lived about two million years ago, had leaders or rulers. It is authentically known that the ancients preferred to stick together – after all, it was almost impossible to survive alone or with just one family. The world in which the first intelligent beings appeared was harsh and merciless. 

In the early stages of existence, a person was too weak – this, most likely, made him abandon the injustice in relations between strong and weak members of the community. It was possible to win the struggle for life only by joint efforts, and in this fierce struggle, everyone, even the weakest member in the group, had his own value. Therefore, the prey was divided equally – among all members of the group. Everyone received their share of the necessary food – the healthy and the sick, children and adults, men and women.

Nevertheless, the ancient people also had their leaders, but they did not become them because of the volume of the biceps, the well-aimed eye or fast legs. Even then, intelligence, justice, ingenuity, worldly experience were highly valued among people. Sometimes women became such leaders – after all, members of the primitive community of people were, as a rule, members of the same clan, and in different communities, kinship was counted both on the paternal and maternal lines. People in the community were connected not only by family ties – they jointly owned all hunting, fishing and gathering lands, used them together and protected them from enemies together. 

About thirty thousand years ago, this situation changed. Some families in the community began to make tools, others – hunting and fishing, others – cattle breeding and primitive farming. Each family received a part of the ancestral land for use, and everything that was produced on it belonged only to this family. Some people and families grew rich, others were impoverished and poor – this was the beginning of property inequality within human communities. 

Inequality quickly led to the emergence of private property and the disintegration of tribal relations. Blood kinship lost its former meaning, and primitive communities began to turn into tribes, or tribes – unions of several genera, having their own territory, common language and customs. At the head of the tribes stood the richest and most influential members of the clans – the leaders. 

Soon the leaders of large tribes realized their power, and some of them began to abuse power. It turned out that it is much easier to rob strangers than to increase what you have with hard and hard everyday work. The warlike tribes were constantly at enmity with their neighbors, who had to create tribal unions in order to repulse the rapists and robbers in time. But, as you know, war breeds war, and often tribal unions created for defense themselves turned into invaders and conquerors.

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