What are quasars: when were they registered and what is known about them
A cosmic body with a relatively small size and which is the strongest source of radio emission is commonly called a quasar. Translated from English, the term itself means "radio sources that are like stars." These sparkling objects are capable of radiating the largest amount of energy in the universe. Despite the fact that quasars are located at a great distance from the Earth, they show a brightness much higher than cosmic bodies, which are located thousands of times closer than quasars. If we talk about the modern definition of quasars, then they represent the active core of the galaxy, in which processes occur that release colossal energy. For this reason, quasars have been called new objects that are located on the boundaries of the universe. Unlike all the stars of the galaxy, quasars are capable of releasing more energy. It is known that the very first quasar was seen by American astronomers who were observing the stars at an observatory in California. Already in 1963, the scientist Schmidt discovered a red deviation in the spectrum of the object he observed, thereby concluding that the source was moving away from our system. A little later, studies showed that the celestial body is at a distance of about 3 billion light years and is moving away at great speed. And already Russian scientists, based on the available data, found out that the object at the same time repeatedly changed its brightness. At the moment, the quasars themselves and their theory of origin remain a mystery to the world of scientists. There are several theories regarding their origin. Many tend to believe that quasars are a black hole that absorbs the surrounding space. And the glow comes from that the particles are affected by attraction and they gain tremendous speed, after which they bump into each other and give such a bright glow. According to the second hypothesis, quasars are considered young galaxies at the time of their birth.
About what a quasar is will be described in more detail in this video.
Quasars as objects of deep space
Quasars are considered the most distant and brightest objects in the universe. By 2005, the number of discovered quasars was 195,000. But the process of detecting such objects is ongoing, so every year their number only increases. Among the most surprising properties of quasars in terms of science is their significant shift in the spectra at the red end. This can only mean one thing, quasars are moving away from us at an enormously high speed. Also, quasars are considered very strong space objects, while among them there is not one that would be brighter than the twelfth magnitude. Moreover, this is due only to a significant distance of quasars, and not as a small emission of light. In reality, any quasar shines by an order of magnitude, or even more than a large galaxy, which consists of a billion stars. quasar energies,
Where are quasars located?
As already mentioned, quasars, just like black holes, and pulsars are located at a far distance from us. In the universe, they are considered the most distant celestial bodies. At the same time, they have the largest infrared radiation. Moreover, if the radiation of a celestial object turns red, then this is evidence that the quasar is moving in the opposite direction from the Earth. Accordingly, the redder the quasar, the farther it is from the Earth and the higher its speed of movement. Quasars move at very high speeds and are prone to constant change. Scientific studies have proven that the speed of movement of quasars can reach up to 240 km / s, and for those who do not know, this is approximately 80% of the speed of light. And of course, since quasars are the most distant objects, a person can see them only after billions of years.
Unusual properties of quasars and interesting facts
Among the unusual properties of quasars, it is worth noting that they are able to change activity in all ranges. That is, in infrared and ultraviolet waves, the visible spectrum and X-rays, as well as radio waves. At the same time, quasars always have more energy than stars. And the difference reaches 1 million. Also, the luminosity of an object is always different at any time intervals. Such fluctuations are considered normal for cosmic bodies that are within the boundaries of a light year. Today, about a hundred thousand quasars have already been recorded, and bodies that are close in their properties to quasars have also been considered. At the same time, in the course of research, it was revealed that only a tenth of their total number is a source of radio waves, the rest of the celestial objects are not capable of emitting them. Besides, for scientists, the real mystery is the variability of quasars. They can change their luminosity with an unusual frequency, which is not characteristic of galaxies. In this case, the period of changes can be calculated in years, weeks and even days. The most incomprehensible and record-breaking change to date is considered to be a change in the brightness of a quasar 25 times in one hour.