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Who Invented the Internet: Stages of a Long and Exciting Journey


The Internet is one of the greatest, albeit highly controversial, inventions of the era. When, where, why, why and who invented the Internet?

Satellite, "kaputnik", Internet

The Internet owes its appearance to the confrontation between the two greatest powers – the USSR and the USA. On October 4, 1957, the Union launched the first ever successful launch of an artificial Earth satellite. Almost immediately, on November 3 of the same year, Sputnik-2 was launched behind Sputnik-1 with the famous Laika on board.

The answer of the Americans was to launch the Avangard satellite on December 6, 1957. Having risen 1 m in height, the American satellite collapsed. For this fiasco, and also in honor of its creator, the German von Braun, Avangard earned the nickname "kaputnik".

Frightened by the fall of the “kaputnik", as well as the promising Soviet nuclear bombing from space, the Americans thought about creating a communications system capable of operating in a nuclear war. In 1958, by decree of President D. Eisenhower, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (APRA) was created on the basis of the US Department of Defense, which began to develop such a system.

In 1963, APRA director J. Licklider developed the first concept of a computer network under the loud name "Galactic Network" ("Galactic Network"). However, the idea was realized only a few years later. So who invented the Internet, the name and surname of this person?

Who Invented the Internet: Stages of a Long and Exciting Journey

Further development

In 1967, APRA employee Roberts puts forward the idea to connect the organization’s computers with a network, which is called APRANET. Further events developed as follows:

  • On October 10, 1969, a successful, albeit short-term communication session took place between APRA computers located at a distance of 640 km from each other;
  • in 1982, APRA creates a single network "language" – TCP / IP protocols, with the help of which computers around the world still communicate with each other, and APRANET becomes a tiny but real Internet;
  • in 1984, APRANET has a powerful rival – NSFNet, a network created on the basis of the US National Science Foundation;
  • from 1984 to 1990, there were, in fact, two Internets in the world: NSFNet and the much less powerful APRANET, which ceases to exist in 1990;
  • after the disappearance of APRANET, NSFNet becomes the Internet, that is, all connections to the network, including those outside the United States, were coordinated by the foundation’s supercomputers; in 1995, this function was transferred to providers, which, although not immediately, made the World Wide Web available to everyone.

In 1977, 100 people in the world used the Internet, in 1984 – 1000, in 1997 – 19.5 million, and in 2014 – 2.5 billion. And in what year was the Internet invented in Russia?

Who Invented the Internet: Stages of a Long and Exciting Journey

Internet in the USSR and Russia: milestones

The prototype of the Internet appeared in the USSR in 1952, that is, 15 years earlier than the American APRANET. The Soviet network carried out communication between military computers within the framework of the anti-missile defense system. In the 80s, on the basis of the Research Institute of Applied Automated Systems, Soviet scientists conducted experiments on international communications and organized computer conferences with foreign colleagues.

In 1990, the first Soviet and Russian network, RELCOM, was created. In the same year, the top (state) level domain .su (Soviet Union – Soviet Union) was registered. In 1994, the domain .ru (Russia – Russia) was registered, in 2010 – the domain in Cyrillic (.rf).

In 2003, 19.5 million Russians used Runet, in 2014 – 70 million (with a population of 146 million). In terms of the number of network users, Russia ranks 1st in Europe and 6th in the world. As of 2014, there are approximately 5 million sites in Runet where you can find out, among other things, who invented the Internet.

Like many great inventions, the Internet has several "fathers", and, probably, its history is far from over.