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What is a computer and how did it appear?


A computer is a programmable EED (electronic computing device), the main task of which is data processing, as well as the transmission and storage of information.

With the help of calculations, a computer can process information according to a predetermined algorithm. In addition, thanks to the software, he is able to find information, receive and store it, and output it to external devices.

The name of a computer is directly related to its function (the word "computer" in English means "compute"). Actually, the first EEDs were used for these purposes. Modern computers provide the user with much more opportunities: they can be used to process texts, graphic material, process a huge amount of information. Computers are used in offices. They are also indispensable at home, because with their help you can watch a movie, listen to music, play a game or “surf" the Internet.

The scheme of the computer device was proposed by J. von Neumann in 1946. Many principles of its operation are preserved in modern machines. Based on them, the computer must be equipped with the following devices:

– an arithmetic-logical unit that will perform tasks;

– a storage device that stores data;

– a control device that organizes the entire process of executing various programs;

– an external device with which the input or output of information will be carried out.

At first, computers were used only for computing operations. Their second major application was the creation of databases. The third is the use to control various devices.

What the computer is used for at the present time is known to everyone. In addition, supercomputers are indispensable for modeling biological and physical processes (climatic changes, nuclear reactions, etc.).

Computers are divided into 2 main types – analog and digital. The differences between them are in the construction, methods of internal representation of information and in reactions to given commands. The peculiarity of AK is that it imitates what it calculates during operation. At the same time, he constantly modifies his characteristics. His reaction is similar to the process embodied in the task. CCs are the most common. They are capable of changing binary numbers or bits. They can also use numbers to represent other information – letters, addition and subtraction operations, etc.

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